world view that can neither be classified as hawkish nor dovish. Moreover, I also make .. A Hawk or a Dove? 'Are you a hawk or a dove on India Kasuri Sahib?. The book is a treatise of Pakistan's foreign policy and its execution by a former Pakistani Foreign Minister, Khurshid Mahmud Kasuri (). An authoritative and revelatory account of Pakistan’s politics Khurshid Mahmud Kasuri is one of Pakistan’s most important diplomats, and was the country’s foreign minister – Kasuri talks frankly about his Indian interlocutors, his three counterparts Pranab Mukherjee.

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Inspired by Friends no Masters, Khusheed Mehmood. Kasuri Neither a Hawk nor a Dove is an excellent reading with some inside details of his political. Khurshid Mahmud Kasuri: Neither a Hawk Nor a Dove: An. Insider's Account of Pakistan's Foreign Relations Including. Details of the Kashmir Framework. Neither a Hawk Nor a Dove. An Insider's Account of Pakistan's Foreign Relations. Khurshid Mahmud Kasuri. The book is a first-hand account of the inner.

The hawk-dove nomenclature has itself been criticised although it must be said that the terms hawk and dove are well-known in the literature, e.

Alternative suggestions have included 'stringent' and 'lenient', and from a different perspective there is a suggestion that examiners can either be 'candidate centred' i.

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A slightly different approach to naming refers to 'examiner specificity' e. The name suggests that this concept is similar to 'case specificity', in which, because candidates are not equally proficient at all clinical tasks they have areas of weakness and strength, and hence can get lucky or unlucky in the particular cases they happen to see, sometimes seeing cases with which they are familiar and other times seeing cases with which, for a host of reasons, they are unfamiliar.

Case specificity is said to be found in a wide range of assessment contexts see e. However, it is not clear that the parallel between case specificity and examiner specificity is in fact appropriate. The key feature of case specificity is that it is a variation in a candidate's ability across different types of case, and so examiner specificity should also refer to a variation in hawkish-dovishness according to the particular case.

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That though is not what we are referring to here although it could be analysed , but are instead only considering an examiner's overall propensity for being strict or lenient in the same way as the overall candidate effect looks at their overall propensity to be correct or incorrect. We will not therefore use the term 'examiner specificity'.

None of the terms is entirely satisfactory, but the hawk-dove nomenclature has the advantage of being in use for at least three decades, and being an effective and easy metaphor and one which is used in several other areas of science as well, as for instance in games theory and evolutionary biology [ 18 ]. Leniency and stringency are however somewhat less emotional descriptors, and we will therefore use the terms leniency and stringency while discussing statistical results, but will also use hawk and dove on occasion when they are useful metaphors in discussion.

We must emphasise that when we use the latter terms they should be seen as extremes on a continuum, rather than as discrete classes of individuals although one does occasionally see comments implying the latter, such as in a surgery examination where is was suggested that "the ratio of hawks to doves is said to be or , so expect at least one examiner of the ten that you meet to appear as 'smiling death' " [ 19 ], or in the phrase that, "comparing results across examiners shows that we tend to be either 'hawks' marking hard or 'doves' marking easily " [ 20 ].

However, just as most people are neither extraverts nor introverts, and are neither tall nor short, but instead are somewhere in the middle of the range, so it is likely that most examiners are somewhere between the extremes of being a hawk or dove, and hence are in the mid-range of stringency-leniency.

Of course, once stringency-leniency becomes measurable then the shape of the distribution becomes an empirical matter, and will be discussed below. Although the problem of hawks and doves in medical examination is often mentioned, there are relatively few statistical analyses of the problem although there is some work within medicine [ 21 , 22 ] and elsewhere [ 23 - 25 ].

An early example of a statistical analysis looking at hawks and doves is to be found in a paper from which describes a previous major revision of the MRCP UK [ 26 ].

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It considered 10 examinations, taken by candidates and in whom the overall pass rate was Each candidate was seen by two examiners and together the two examiners produced an agreed mark.

The paper concludes, "There can be little doubt that X was a 'hawk' whose influence on his colleagues was such as to lower the pass rate for the candidates he examined substantially below the expected level". The statistical identification of hawks and doves is not straightforward. At first sight it might seem that examiners could be compared on the average marks they award, with those giving higher marks being classified as doves, and those giving lower marks being classified as hawks.

That however assumes that indeed all other things are equal, which is unlikely to be the case.

Examiners do not all see the same candidates and it is possible that candidates in some centres may be less competent than those in other centres. Stations can also differ in difficulty, and examiners not examine an equal numbers of times on each station, so that examining more often on difficult stations might artefactually make an examiner appear to be more hawkish.

In this paper we wish to describe a statistical analysis of a large number of candidates who have taken PACES, the clinical examination of the MRCP UK , in which we use multi-facet Rasch modelling to identify examiner effects.

In the past the examination took a very traditional format of one long case, several short cases, and an oral examination [ 27 ]. Before taking the examination, candidates must have passed the Part 1 and Part 2 written examinations, which assess clinical knowledge and applied biomedical science. Selection, training and monitoring of examiners is provided, as described in a document provided by the Colleges [see Additional File 1 ].

Details of the examination are given in the Method section below, but here it will suffice to say that each candidate receives two separate marks on each of seven different clinical activities. The key to understanding the assessment of examiner stringency in the PACES examination is to realise that each candidate on each station is always seen by two examiners. The two examiners observe the identical clinical encounter at the same time, candidate, centre, patient or simulated patient being seen, clinical task, words spoken by the candidate and the examiners, all being identical.

The only thing that differs is the two examiners themselves. He suggests that, for the sake of substantial and sustainable progress, both the governments should break open the straitjacket imposed by domestic blow-back effect. While discussing the pre-normalization process with India writer narrates the post Kargil tensions, inconclusive Agra summit and attack on Indian parliament in leading to nearly a year-long deployment of over one million troops on Pakistan-India borders.

Later, in a departure from its stance of not dealing with a military ruler, Prime Minister Vajpayee extended invitation to President Musharraf for Agra summit, mainly on L. The summit remained inconclusive because the Indian side had dug its heels that there could not be any significant movement on the issues that were of concern to Pakistan unless there was sufficient emphasis on terrorism and acceptance that it must end.

This provided an opportunity for holding bilateral talks that led to initiation of Composite Dialogue CD process a month later. The CD framework with various brand names continues to be foundation stone of whatever peace process has or has not crawled forward since then.

Indeed these four points were mutually contradictory, and hence nonstarter. Kasuri under the tutelage of President Musharraf followed a line of action that could have ended-up in freezing status quo in Kashmir. Writer says that due to sensitivity of the issue, governments of India and Pakistan decided to add a preliminary back channel phase to the process for maintaining confidentiality—away from media glare to preserve it from derailment attempts.

The idea was to hammer out a draft, acceptable to the people of both side. It was good idea as long as it did not deviate from the well-established parameters. However, the details of the draft agreement reveal horrific details to the peril of Pakistan. And that these elections would be made open to international observers and media.

Book reveals that "It was agreed that this mechanism will meet periodically—at least twice or thrice a year. The foreign ministers were proposed to meet at least on yearly basis to monitor the progress p.

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On Bangladesh, his comments reflect nostalgia for old connections. David E Long.

We appreciate your feedback. However on many forms of examination the examiners rate candidates on a ranking scale e. This was hailed as the most promising dialogue between Pakistan and India since Independence.

He strongly believes in Jinnah's vision of a pluralistic, progressive, and inclusive Pakistan.

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