Briefly, An Introduction to Compiler Construction in a Java World is organized Microsystems Journal, pages 1– This text uses compiler construction to teach Java technology and software engineering principles. It gives students a deeper understanding of the Java programming language and its implementation. Unlike other texts, the example compiler and the examples in the chapters focus on. Decomposition was certainly helpful to us 8 An Introduction to Compiler Construction in a Java World Compiling JVM Code Compilation 9.

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Introduction to Compiler Construction in a Java World. Bill Campbell, Swami Iyer, Bahar Akbal-Delibas. Errata. Here you can find a listing of known errors in our. Introduction to. Compiler Construction in a Java World. Bill Campbell. Swami Iyer. Bahar Akbal-Deliba$. CRC Press. Taylor & Francis Group. Boca Raton. No preview is available for Introduction to Compiler Construction in a Java World - Bill Campbell & Swami because its size exceeds MB. To view it.

The target language is normally a low-level language such as assembly, written with somewhat cryptic abbreviations for machine instructions, in these cases it will also run an assembler to generate the final machine code. But some compilers can directly generate machine code for some actual or virtual computer e.

Another common approach to the resulting compilation effort is to target a virtual machine. That will do just-in-time compilation and byte-code interpretation and blur the traditional categorizations of compilers and interpreters. The draw-back is that because there are many types of processor there will need to be as many distinct compilations.

In contrast Java will target a Java Virtual Machine, which is an independent layer above the 'architecture'. The difference is that the generated byte-code, not true machine code, brings the possibility of portability, but will need a Java Virtual Machine the byte-code interpreter for each platform. The extra overhead of this byte-code interpreter means slower execution speed.

An interpreter is a computer program which executes the translation of the source program at run-time. Fetching data from, and storing data in, registers are much faster than accessing memory locations because registers are part of the computer processing unit CPU that does the actual computation.

For this reason, a compiler tries to keep as many variables and partial results in registers as possible. The JVM is said to be virtual not because it does not exist, but because it is not necessarily implemented in hardware3 ; rather, it is implemented as a software program.

We discuss the implementation of the JVM in greater detail in Chapter 7. But as compiler writers, we are interested in its instruction set rather than its implementation. Hence the compiler: Compilation is often contrasted with interpretation, where the high-level language pro- gram is executed directly. Tools often exist for displaying the machine code in mnemonic form, which is more readable than a sequence of binary byte values.

Computers designed for implementing particular programming languages rarely succeed. Compilation 3 and then executed Figure 1. First is performance. Native machine code programs run faster than interpreted high- level language programs. To see why this is so, consider what an interpreter must do with each statement it executes: It is much better to translate all statements in a program to native code just once, and execute that4.

Second is secrecy. Companies often want to protect their investment in the programs that they have paid programmers to write. But, compilation is not always suitable. The overhead of interpretation does not always justify writing or, downloading a compiler. An example is the Unix Shell or Windows shell programming language. Programs written in shell script have a simple syntax and so are easy to interpret; moreover, they are not executed often enough to warrant compilation.

And, as we have stated, compilation maps names to addresses; some dynamic programming languages LISP is a classic example, but there are a myriad of newer dynamic languages depend on keeping names around at run-time. So why study compilers? There are several reasons for studying compilers.

Compilers are larger programs than the ones you have written in your programming courses. It is good to work with a program that is like the size of the programs you will be working on when you graduate. Compilers make use of all those things you have learned about earlier: The intermediate forms are smaller, and space can play a role in run-time performance. We discuss just-in-time compilation and hotspot compilation in Chapter 8. It is fun to use all of these in a real program.

You learn about the language you are compiling in our case, Java. Compilers are still being written for new languages and targeted to new computer architectures. Yes, there are still compiler-writing jobs out there.

Programs that process XML use compiler technology. There is a mix of theory and practice, and each is relevant to the other.

The organization of a compiler is such that it can be written in stages, and each stage makes use of earlier stages. So, compiler writing is a case study in software engineering. Compilers are programs. And writing programs is fun. At the very least, a compiler can be broken into a front end and a back end Figure 1. The front end takes as input, a high-level language program, and produces as output a representation another translation of that program in some intermediate language that lies somewhere between the source language and the target language.

We call this the intermediate representation IR. The back end then takes this intermediate representation of the program as input, and produces the target machine language program. The scanner is responsible for breaking the input stream of characters into a stream of tokens: The parser is responsible for taking this sequence of lexical tokens and parsing against a grammar to produce an abstract syntax tree AST , which makes the syntax that is implicit in the source program, explicit.

The semantics phase is responsible for semantic analysis: When a programming language allows one to refer to a name that is declared later on in the program, the semantics phase must really involve at least two phases or two passes over the program.

The code generation phase is responsible for choosing what target machine instructions to generate. It makes use of information collected in earlier phases.

Finally, the object phase links together any modules produced in code generation and constructs a single machine code executable program.

The purpose of the optimizer Figure 1. The optimizer might do any number of the following: An optimizer might consist of just one phase or several phases, depending on the op- timizations performed. These and other possible optimizations are discussed more fully in Chapters 6 and 7.

Decomposition reduces complexity. It is easier to understand and implement the smaller programs. Decomposition makes it possible for several individuals or teams to work concurrently on separate parts, thus reducing the overall implementation time. Decomposition permits a certain amount of re-use5 For example, once one has written a front end for Java and a back end for the Intel Core Duo, one need only write a new C front end to get a C compiler.

Figure 1. We cannot count the number of times we have written front ends with the intention of re-using them, only to have to rewrite them for new customers with that same intention!

Realistically, one ends up re-using designs more often than code. Decomposition was certainly helpful to us, the authors, in writing the j-- compiler as it allowed us better organize the program and to work concurrently on distinct parts of it. The source language is Java; the target machine is the JVM.

To execute this. The JVM is an interpreter, which is imple- mented based on the observation that almost all programs spend most of their time in a small part of their code.

The native code is then executed, or interpreted, on the native computer. Net tools. Third parties have implemented other front-end compilers for other programming languages, taking advantage of the existing JIT compilers.

In this textbook, we compile a non-trivial subset of Java, which we call j So in a sense, this compiler is a front end. Nevertheless, our compiler implements many of those phases that are traditional to compilers and so it serves as a reasonable example for an introductory compilers course. In doing this, we face the challenge of mapping possibly many variables to a limited number of fast registers.

It takes up less space to store and less memory to execute and it is more amenable to transport over the Internet. One wanting a compiler for any source language need only write a front-end compiler that targets the virtual machine to take advantage of this optimization.

Implementers claim, and performance tests support, that hotspot interpreters, which compile to native code only those portions of a program that execute frequently, actually run faster than programs that have been fully translated to native code. Caching behavior might account for this improved performance. Our j-- compiler is organized in an object-oriented fashion. To be honest, most compilers are not organized in this way.

As the previous section suggests, most compilers are written in a procedural style. Compiler writers have generally bucked the object-oriented organizational style and have relied on the more functional organization described in Section 1.

Even so, we decided to structure our j-- compiler on object-oriented principles. We chose Java as the implementation language because that is the language our students know best and the one or one like it in which you will program when you graduate.

Also, you are likely to be programming in an object-oriented style. It has many of the components of a traditional compiler, and its structure is not neces- sarily novel. Nevertheless, it serves our purposes: The j-- compiler is written in Java. The entry point to the j-- compiler is Main7. It reads in a sequence of arguments, and then goes about creating a Scanner object, for scanning tokens, and a Parser object for parsing the input source language program and constructing an abstract syntax tree AST.

For example, an object of type JCompilationUnit sits at the root the top of the tree for representing the program being compiled. It has sub-trees representing the package name, list of imported types, and list of type that is, class declarations. Its two sub-trees represent the two operands.

This is required because method bodies may make forward references to names declared later on in the input. The output argument is a CLEmitter object, an abstraction of the output. Once Main has created the scanner and parser, 1. Main sends a compilationUnit message to the parser, causing it to parse the pro- gram by a technique known as recursive descent, and to produce an AST.

Main then sends the analyze message to the root JCompilationUnit node, and analyze recursively descends the tree all the way down to its leaves, declaring names and checking types.

Main then sends the codegen message to the root JCompilationUnit node, and codegen recursively descends the tree all the way down to its leaves, generating JVM code. At the start of each class declaration, codegen creates a new CLEmitter object for representing a target. The compiler is then done with its work.

Campbell B., Iyer S., Akbal-Delibas B. Introduction to Compiler Construction in a Java World

As this is just an overview and a preview of what is to come in subsequent chapters, it is not important that one understand everything at this point. We have the rest of the text to understand how it all works! Its purpose is to scan tokens from the input stream of characters comprising the source language program. For example, consider the following source language HelloWorld program. Compilation 11 System. For example, it recognizes each of import, java,. The parser uses these category names to identify the kinds of incoming tokens.


Such attributes are used in semantic analysis. Some tokens are reserved words, each having its unique name in the code. Operators and separators also have distinct names. For example, the separators. Others are literals; for example, the string literal Hello, World! Comments are scanned and ignored altogether. As important as some comments are to a person who is trying to understand a program8 , they are irrelevant to the compiler. Rather, it scans each token on demand; each time the parser needs a subsequent token, it sends the nextToken message to the scanner, which then returns the token id and any image information.

The scanner is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 2.

GNU Compiler for Java

For example, consider the following grammatical rule describing the syntax for a com- pilation unit: When programmers modify code, they often forget to update the accompanying comments. To parse a compilation unit using the recursive descent technique, one would write a method, call it compilationUnit , which does the following: While the next incoming token is not an EOF, invoke a method called typeDeclaration for parsing the type declaration in j-- this is only a class declaration , and we must scan a SEMI.

How Does a Compiler Work? A Tool for Generating Scanners. NET Framework. Appendix A: Setting Up and Running j -- Appendix B: The j -- Language Appendix C: Java Syntax Appendix D: His areas of expertise include software engineering, object-oriented analysis, design and programming, and programming language implementation.

Swami Iyer is a PhD candidate in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Massachusetts, Boston, where he has taught classes on introductory programming and data structures. His research interests are in the fields of dynamical systems, complex networks, and evolutionary game theory.

Her research interests include structural bioinformatics and software modeling. Upper-division undergraduates and above. No previous background in the theory of computation is needed, but a solid Java background is essential and some previous experience with programming languages scope, stack allocation, types, and so on would be useful. Knowledge of assembly language programming will be helpful if the course will include the chapters on register allocation and translating to MIPS.

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Introduction to Compiler Construction in a Java World

CPD consists of any educational activity which helps to maintain and develop knowledge, problem-solving, and technical skills with the aim to provide better health care through higher standards. It could be through conference attendance, group discussion or directed reading to name just a few examples.Jump to navigation Jump to search Introducing Compilers and Interpreters[ edit ] A compiler is a computer program that implements a programming language specification to "translate" programs, usually as a set of files which constitute the source code written in source language, into their equivalent machine readable instructions the target language, often having a binary form known as object code.

Native machine code programs run faster than interpreted high- level language programs. It is easier to understand and implement the smaller programs. Using JavaCC to generate a parser. Embeds 0 No embeds. In Chapter 1 we describe what compilers are and how they are organized, and we give an overview of the example j-- compiler, which is written in Java and supplied with the text.

In fact, with what we know so far about j--, we are already in a position to start enhancing the language by adding new albeit simple constructs to it. Again, there are exercises for the student so that he or she may become acquainted with a register machine and register allocation. No notes for slide.

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